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  • Silicon Ingot Production: High-purity silicon is melted and formed into solid blocks called ingots.
  • Wafer Production: The silicon ingots are sliced into thin wafers using wire saws. These wafers are typically about 0.2-0.3 mm thick.
  • Wafer Processing: The wafers undergo several steps to remove defects, polish the surface, and texture them to increase light absorption.
  • Solar Cell Production: Wafers are treated with do-pants to create a positive and negative electrical polarity, forming the basic photovoltaic cells.
  • Solar Panel Assembly: Solar cells are interconnected and sandwiched between protective layers (usually glass and polymer) in a specific configuration to form a solar panel.
  • Testing and Quality Control: Panels are tested for efficiency, durability, and electrical output to ensure they meet performance standards.
  • Packaging and Distribution: Once tested and approved, panels are packaged for shipment to solar installation companies or distributors.
  • Installation and Maintenance: Finally, solar panels are installed at the desired location and may require periodic maintenance to ensure optimal performance.

Throughout these steps, manufacturers strive to optimize efficiency, reduce costs, and improve the environmental footprint of solar panel production.